Functional Neurosurgery

Functional Neurosurgery is one of the fast upcoming specializations in the field of neurological sciences. It is highly useful for the patients with certain neurological disorders which got no benefit from other treatments. It provides comprehensive treatment for patients with movement disorders, epilepsy, essential tremors, chronic pain, spinal cord injury, muscle spasm and psychiatric dFunctional-Neurosurgery1iseases. The goal of functional neurosurgery is to improve each patient’s quality of life.

It makes use of advanced techniques of neuromodulation, spinal cord stimulation, seizure surgery and deep brain stimulation.

A functional neurosurgery team includes experts in the multidisciplinary fields of neurosurgery, neurology, psychology and physiology and nurse practitioners.

INDICATIONS FOR FUNCTIONAL NEUROSURGEY

Neurological problems which could not be treated by non-surgical and other treatments are usually considered for treatment under functional neurosurgery.

o Movement disorders

Parkinson’s syndrome and essential tremors are the major sources of movement disorders. Parkinson’s syndrome is characterized by symptoms like resting tremor, bradykinesia and muscle rigidity. Deep Brain Stimulation is the surgical treatment option for Parkinson’s disease. Microelectrode recording is an advanced stereotactic technology which can be used in the DBS surgery for better results. Pallidotomy is another procedure used to relieve Parkinson’s disease and tremors can be treated by thalamotomy.

Spasmodic Torticollis is another movement disorder that affects the muscles of the neck.

Chronic pain

Unexpected contraction of muscles can cause muscle spasm. Pain can be caused by compression of cranial nerve by an artery or vein. Relieve pressure and the stop the pain by removing blood vessel called microvascular decompression.

Epilepsy

Epilepsy occurs due to seizures which results from any brain injury or abnormal electrical activity in the brain.

For treating epilepsy, the following surgery may be used in functional neurosurgery.

  • Lesionectomy
  • Lobectomy
  • Corticectomy
  • Callosotomy
  • Vagus nerve stimulation

Psychiatric Disease:

Patients with depression or other psychiatric problems may need following treatment options.

  • Deep brain stimulation
  • Vagus nerve stimulation
  • Cingulotomy
  • Subcaudate tractotomy
    • Brachial plexus injury- DREZ lesioning technique can be used.
    • Nerve injury and ischemic pain- spinal cord stimulator (SCS) can be used to treat.
    • Facial pain syndromes- electrocogulations, microdecompressions and cortical stimulations are performed.